Al Fayoum Governorate
The city of Fayoum was in the past belonging to the regions of ancient Egypt, where it was a barren desert region, and later became fertile land that attracts people, due to the branching of one of the Nile River branches, and its transformation towards the city in 7200 BC, archaeological research has revealed an agricultural community in Fayoum that dates back to The history of 4750 BC, and in 4000 BC, the inhabitants left the area heading to the Nile River, due to its drought, knowing that the origin of the name of the city dates back to the ancient Egyptian word (day) (English: Pa-yuum); it means the lake, Or the sea, as a symbol of the lake created by Amenemhat I, the time of the Second Dynasty, Live Of which ruled the ancient Egypt , the height of the city and reached its prosperity in the time of the Middle Kingdom period from 2040 BC to the year 1782 BC, and its position retreated after the fall of the Modern Kingdom period from 1570 BC to the year 1069 BC, the era of Roman, Ptolemaic, and Augustus Caesar witnessed improvement in the status of the city, and the awakening and revival began, as there were reforms of the city, which led to the restoration of life to it, between the years 323 BC and 646 AD.
Fayoum Governorate Location
Fayoum Governorate is considered one of the three governorates of Upper Egypt located in the north of Egypt, as it is located in the northern part of the western desert, and it is 90 km from the Egyptian capital Cairo towards the south-western direction, and is bordered on the north and west by the 6th of October Governorate, and on the east by the Giza Governorate, From the south side of Beni Suef Governorate, the astronomical location of the governorate describes its location as it is on a longitude of 30.84, and a width circle of 29.31, an altitude of up to 29 m above the sea level, as Fayoum Governorate extends east and west by 80 km, and north and south a distance of 56 km, and thus represents Area 33.8 % Of the area of the northern Upper Egypt region, and the population of the governorate is 2.5 million, according to the statistics of 2006, and it includes Wadi Rayyan, which is 45 meters below sea level, and a triangular region of a desert nature, surrounded on the north by Giza, and on the south by Beni Suef As for the city of Fayoum, which is part of the Fayoum Governorate, it is divided into 6 administrative divisions, and the geographical location of the city of Fayoum is average, which makes it a connecting area between Giza and Cairo in the north, and between Beni Suef and the governorates of Upper Egypt in the south, as it connects to Cairo via a railway line, The area of the city is n It is estimated at approximately 8 km2, in addition to the fact that its population, according to statistics in 2006, reached approximately 312 thousand people.
Tourism in Fayoum Governorate
Fayoum is distinguished by a group of factors that make it attractive area for tourism activity, as it is located near Giza and Cairo, and it also has a moderate climate, especially in the winter, as many civilizations that left behind it have passed a great historical heritage in the region, in addition to that there is a group Among the natural areas of natural beauty, in which many activities can be practiced, the most important tourist areas in Fayoum Governorate:
Wadi Al-Rayyan Nature Reserve
There are waterfalls in the Wadi Al-Rayyan Reserve, 20 km from the gate of the reserve, which forms a lake in which tourists can paddle using wooden boats. There is also rich wildlife in the reserve represented by white deer, Egyptian deer, sand foxes, eagles, and others. There are also 3 artificial lakes in the reserve that attract many types of birds.
Qarun Lake used to cover large areas of Fayoum Governorate, but it was drained, due to the channels connecting to the Nile River, which the pharaohs dug to reclaim land in the region, and today it extends 42 km, and its depth reaches 45 m below sea level. Many migratory birds such as flamingo and spoonbill, as well as ducks, settle there.
The valley is designed to include paths leading to more than 12 huge skeletons, and there is a circular museum in the valley in which fossils, and the museum mediates a skeleton of a whale of 18 meters long, and the Organization of UNESCO included the Whale Valley to the World Heritage List.
The Pyramid of Meidum
The Pyramid of Meidum is located 30 km north east of the city of Fayoum, and it is considered the first attempt by the ancient Egyptians to build the pyramids, where it was built by the pharaoh (Snefrou), knowing that the Pyramid of Meidum is not considered a complete building because it was subjected to collapse from both sides, due to its weight, as a result of An error in design, as it remains the main part that can now be reached by steps leading to a burial chamber at a height of 75 m, and near the pyramid, a group of terraces designated as tombs for the Pharaoh Snefru family line up.
The pyramid is located 8 km south east of the city of Fayoum, and it is a pyramid built by Amenemhat III , where it was designed as a maze that includes 3 thousand rooms, and the dimensions of the pyramid are 300 m by 250 m, and the pyramid was old covered with white limestone, noting that there is only left of it today The essential building of clay bricks.